What is Civil Engineering?

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams and buildings and other facilities that are used in our daily life. Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Civil engineering is progressing at a fast pace as our other technologies.


Civil engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. The earliest practices of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia that is ancient Iraq when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence thus causing a need for the construction of shelter. During this time transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the will and sailing. The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton who constructed the Eddy stone lighthouse.

Civil Engineering in everyday life

Civil engineering has a significant role in the life of every human being though it may not truly sense its importance in our daily routine. The function of civil engineering commences with the start of the day when we take a shower since the water is delivered through a water supply system including a well-designed network of pipes. Water treatment plant and other numerous associated services the network of roads on which we drive while proceeding to school or work the huge structural bridges. We come across and the tall buildings where we work all have been designed and constructed by civil engineers. Even the benefits of electricity we use are available to us through the contribution of civil engineers. Who constructed the towers for the transmission lines. In fact no sphere of life may be identified that does not include the contribution of civil engineering. Thus the importance of civil engineering may be determined according to its usefulness in our daily life.


Civil engineers have various job specialization options. You may choose among various disciplines depending on your personal interests. 

 1. Structural Engineering                                                                                                                                              
The main disciplines are structural engineering. Structural engineering involves the design of structures that should be saved for the users to be economical and accomplish the desired functions. it includes steel structures buildings tunnels highways dams and bridges.

       2. Construction Engineering

Construction engineering involves planning and execution transportation of materials site development based on hydraulic environmental structural and geotechnical engineering.

     3.    Transportation Engineering

Transportation engineering is concerned with moving people and goods efficiently safely and in a manner conducive to a vibrant community. This involves specifying designing constructing and maintaining transportation infrastructure which includes streets canals highways rail systems airport ports and mass transit.

       4. Geotechnical Engineering

Geotechnical engineering deals with soil rocks foundations of buildings and bridges highways sewers and underground water systems.

      5. Water Resources Engineering

Water Resources engineering concerns with the management of quantity and quality of water in the underground and above-ground water resources. Such as rivers, lakes and streams.

6. Environmental Engineering
Environmental engineering is related to the science of waste management of all types of purification of water cleaning of contaminated areas reduction of pollution and industrial ecology.

7. Coastal Engineering
Coastal engineering concerns specific demands posed by constructing at or near the coast as well as the development of the coast itself.

     8. Earthquake Engineering

Earthquake engineering involves designing structures to withstand hazardous earthquake exposures. earthquake engineering is a sub-discipline of structural engineering.

Apart from all these sub-disciplines, there are many other two


Civil engineering is an exciting profession because at the end of the day you can see the results of your work. Whether this is a completed bridge a high-rise building a subway station or a hydroelectric dam. Civil engineering graduates can rest assured that the demand for their expertise is constant and even growing. Because of the steady increase in civil engineering jobs in the infrastructure and construction industry in particular. Civil engineering is not just a stable job but a rapidly expanding one as well.


The truth is as long as some structures and facilities need to be built or constructed there will always be a demand for civil engineers. According to statistics released by the US Department of Labour employment of civil engineers is projected to grow twenty percent up to 2022 faster than the average for all occupations. As infrastructure continues to age civil engineers will be needed to manage projects to rebuild bridges repair roads and upgrade levels and dams.